|VOMITING AGENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS
|Agent + (Code)
|Form at 68oF
||White to brown solid||Yellow to green solid||White to pale solid|
||None||None||Bitter almond-garlic mix|
|1 - 2 hours||1 - 2 hours||1 - 2 hours|
|2 - 4 hours||2 - 4 hours||2 - 4 hours|
|Rapid||Very rapid||Very rapid|
|Toxic through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Dispersed as an aerosol, irritates eyes but not necessarily the skin. DM has been noted to cause necrosis of corneal epithelium in humans.|
|Irritates respiratory tract. Vomiting agents can cause great discomfort. Symptoms include irritation mucous membranes, coughing, sneezing, severe headache, acute pain and tightness in the chest, nausea, and vomiting. The human body will detoxify the effects of mild exposures within 30 minutes of evacuation. Severe exposures may take several hours to detoxify and minor sensory disturbances may persist for up to one day.|
|LD50 Skin Dose
|variable, average 11,000|
||When released indoors, can cause serious illness or death.|
||Inhalation: move victim to fresh air; wear a mask/respirator in spite of coughing, sneezing, salivation, and nausea; lift the mask from the face briefly, if necessary, to permit vomiting or to drain saliva from the facepiece. Eye Contact: don a respiratory protective mask. Skin Contact: rinse nose and throat with saline water or bicarbonate of soda solution; wash exposed skin and scalp with soap and water and allow to dry on the skin; dust the skin with borated talcum. Ingestion: carry on as vigorously as possible; this will help to lessen and shorten the symptoms. In all cases, except ingestion unless necessary, seek medical attention.|
LD50 is the dose at which 50% of the exposed population will die.
A different measure, LCt50, is used for inhalation, the product of the concentration (C) and the length of exposure (t). Effective dosages for vapor are estimated for exposure durations of 2-10 minutes.
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